Instruments for Screening Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Drivers of Commercial Vehicles: A Systematic Literature Review
Keywords:OSA, sleep disorder, snoring, professional drivers, accident, screening tools.
Background: Undiagnosed Obstructive sleep apnea in commercial vehicle drivers has the potential to cause
traffic accidents. Polysomnography is the gold standard for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea, but it is
expensive, impractical, and not available in primary health services in the workplace.
Objective: This systematic literature review aimed to identify and evaluate the Obstructive Sleep Apnea
screening instruments that have been used on commercial vehicle drivers in the past 10 years.
Method: A review was conducted to analyze the latest research related to the use of instruments for screening
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in commercial vehicle drivers. Publications from December 2009 through December
2019 were identified using EBSCO, Science Direct, ProQuest, SpringerLink, and SAGE Publications. The
research included was published in English and concerns the use of Obstructive Sleep Apnea screening
tools among commercial vehicle drivers (i.e., truck, taxi, commercial vehicle, and public transportation
drivers). The screening employed various questionnaires, the measurement of biological parameters (body
mass index [BMI], neck circumference, blood pressure, Mallampati score), and polysomnography. Each
article was analyzed according to these criteria, and its relevance was assessed.
Result: The initial screening inclusion criteria produced 10 relevant studies. All the studies used instruments
to screen Obstructive Sleep Apnea in commercial vehicle drivers, and they all indicate that using obstructive
sleep apnea screening instruments is useful for identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea cases in commercial
Conclusion: The Obstructive Sleep Apnea screening instruments provided information through the use of
a questionnaire and the examination of biological parameters. The Berlin and STOP-Bang questionnaires
have good sensitivity and specificity, making them suitable tools for Obstructive Sleep Apnea screening in
commercial vehicle drivers.
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