Comparative Study of Pap Smear Verses Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Screening for Cervical Cancer


  • Lulu Ameena



Pap smear , VIA. Cancer cervix, screening


Background: Carcinoma of cervix is 2nd most common cancer globally . India accounts for 4th global
burden . Pap smear is screening method in developed countries .VIA can be an alternative screening method
to pap smear in developing countries as it is low cost, simple administration, real time screening of results .
Aim of Study : To compare pap smear and VIA in screening for cervical cancer.
Objectives of the Study:
1. To find out the specificity , sensitivity, PPV , NPV of pap smear for detecting carcinoma of cervix
2. To find out the specificity sensitivity PPV, NPV of VIA detecting carcinoma of cervix.
3. To compare the cost effectiveness of performing pap smear and VIA
Methodology : Informed oral consent taken .Cervix is to be visualized using a cuscos speculum .Ectocervix
and endocervix samples taken and fixed with cytofix and sent for pathologist .TZ is visualized and 3% acetic
acid is applied for 1-2 min . If aceto white areas seen it is positive test . colposcopic guides biopsy done for
women with any one test positive .Correlation of the above two tests is done by HPE .
Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of pap smear 70.83% , 55.56% ,45.95% , and 78.13% .
The sensitivity,specificity, PPV, NPV of VIA 87.50% , 31.11% , 40.38% , 82.35% .VIA is more cost effective
than Pap smear test .
Conclusion : Cervical cancer has a long precancerous stage . VIA is more sensitive compared to pap smear
. It is simple , safe , cost effective test requires less training. VIA can be used as an alternative screening test.

Author Biography

Lulu Ameena

Post graduate Student, 2Professor and HOD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sri Siddhartha Medical
College, Tumkur



How to Cite

Lulu Ameena. (2021). Comparative Study of Pap Smear Verses Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Screening for Cervical Cancer. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 12(3), 106-114.