Geomedical Assessment of Areas Having Varying Groundwater Fluoride Levels in Rudraprayag District, Uttarakhand

Authors

  • Nidhi Sharma
  • Vartika Saxena
  • Manisha Naithani
  • Saif Khan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37506/ijphrd.v12i3.16053

Keywords:

Fluorosis, Geology, Geomedical assessment, Community Fluorosis Index

Abstract

Background: Fluorosis is a public health problem caused by excess intake of fluoride through drinking
water. Groundwater around the rocks composed of fluoride-rich compounds may have a high concentration
of fluoride. Thus, analyzing the geology of the area may serve as a guide for easy surveillance of fluorosis
disease. Methods: The geological maps of the district were analyzed to develop a fluoride risk map for the
occurrence of fluorosis i.e., the district was divided into three geological categories; high risk, intermediate,
and low-risk areas. This map was correlated to the groundwater fluoride levels and prevalence and severity
of dental fluorosis in the population of the corresponding area. A cross-sectional study was conducted using
a purposive cluster sampling method, a total of 12 villages were selected from the district. Dental fluorosis
was recorded in 558 children and 36 groundwater samples of these villages. Results: Fluoride contamination
was almost nil (< 0.6ppm) in the areas composed of quartz and limestone which also showed an absence
of fluorosis in the dependent population. It was moderate (0.6-1.5ppm) in areas ofaugen gneiss, porphyritic
gneiss with mica schist which showed around 59.9% prevalence of fluorosis. Whereas, heavy contamination
of fluoride (> 1.5ppm) was seen where granite was the main soil-forming parent rock and around 93% of
the related population was affected by fluorosis. Conclusions: This study confirms the positive association
between the presence of fluoride-rich rocks around the water source and the prevalence of fluorosis in the
population of the area. Based on the finding of this study, geological maps of each district of the state may
help in indicating the higher chances of occurrence of fluorosis in the respective districts.

Author Biographies

Nidhi Sharma

PhD Scholar (Community Dentistry),  Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh (Uttarakhand)

Vartika Saxena

Professor, Department of Community and Family Medicine,  All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh (Uttarakhand),

Manisha Naithani

Additional
Professor, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh (Uttarakhand),

Saif Khan

Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontics, Aligarh Muslim University, UP

Published

2021-05-17

How to Cite

Nidhi Sharma, Vartika Saxena, Manisha Naithani, & Saif Khan. (2021). Geomedical Assessment of Areas Having Varying Groundwater Fluoride Levels in Rudraprayag District, Uttarakhand. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 12(3), 122-127. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijphrd.v12i3.16053