Japanese Encephalitis and Other Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in the Khurda, Odisha, India

Authors

  • Nikita Raula
  • Shaikh Shah Hossain
  • Madan Pradhan
  • Prakash Narayanan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37506/ijphrd.v12i3.16055

Keywords:

Japanese Encephalitis, Acute Encephalitic Syndrome, Risk factor

Abstract

Background: Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne
flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus). In India a large number (10-15%) of cases of Acute
Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) is due to Japanese encephalitis with a case fatality rate of 18%. In Odisha,
sporadic cases of JE/AES cases have been reported since 2011. A case-control study was conducted in
Khurda district of Odisha to assess the burden of Japanese encephalitis and the associated risk factors.
Methods: A probable case of AES/JE is defined as any child of 0-15 year age with onset of illness between
September 1-December 31, 2017, residing in the Khurda district of Odisha, presenting with an “acute onset
of fever, change in mental status (such as confusion, disorientation, delirium or coma) and/ or new onset of
seizures”.. A 1to 2 age matched case-control study was conducted. Data was analysed using SPSS version
15.0.
Results: We enrolled 13 cases and 26 controls between September 1-December 31, 2017. People living in
close proximity to the agricultural fields(OR:15.63) rearing livestock at their house and having animal shed
at proximity (OR:3.02 and 6.57 respectively) are at higher risk of getting the disease. Presence of waterbodies
within 200-meter distance of the household (OR: 9.05) and stagnant water in the surrounding of the houses
(OR: 12.38) were at higher risk of getting AES/JE.People using peri-domestic space for toilet (OR: 3.6) and
having Practice of open air defecation (OR: 12.38) were are at higher risk of getting the disease.
Conclusion: Improvement of water and sanitation practices among the community by empowering the
village water hygiene and sanitation committee and village gram panchayat. That will also involve building
of toilets in the houses. Vector control activities like insecticide fogging, IRS spraying and distribution
of long lasting insecticide treated nets are to be taken into consideration, especially in the rural parts of
the district where it is not done regularly. Vaccination coverage of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine is to be
increased.

Author Biographies

Nikita Raula

Post-Graduation in Public Health, Prasanna School of Public Health, Near KMC Greens,
Manipal, Udupi

Shaikh Shah Hossain

Associate Professor, Prasanna School of Public Health, Near KMC Greens,
Manipal, Udupi,

Madan Pradhan

Joint Director (NVBDCP), National Vector Borne Disease Control Program, Directorate of
Public Health, Odisha

Prakash Narayanan

Assistant Professor, Prasanna School of Public health, Near KMC greens, Manipal, Udupi

Published

2021-05-17

How to Cite

Nikita Raula, Shaikh Shah Hossain, Madan Pradhan, & Prakash Narayanan. (2021). Japanese Encephalitis and Other Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in the Khurda, Odisha, India. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 12(3), 128-134. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijphrd.v12i3.16055