The environmental Risk Factors Significant to Anopheles Species Vector Mosquito Profusion, P.falciparum, P.vivax Parasite Development, and Malaria Transmission, Using Remote Sensing and Gis: Review Article

Authors

  • M.Palaniyandi

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37506/ijphrd.v12i4.16539

Keywords:

Anopheles genus mosquitoes, malaria vector breeding habitats, malaria endemic, environmental variables, climate factors, multivariate analysis, remote sensing, and GIS

Abstract

The prevalence of spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of malaria epidemics in India have been
most significantly determined by the environmental variables including climate, landscape, and the man
made factors. The risk factors are acting as decisive factors on the development of Anopheles genus
mosquitoes. The landscape environments (slope, altitude, land use / land covers), human settlements
proximity to permanent water bodies of mosquito breeding habitats (lake, pool, streams, rivers, tanks etc),
agricultural wet rice cultivation land, land use dynamics, population density, urbanization, increase of man
water resource projects. The coefficient model of climate determinants (rainfall and temperature) with the
mosquito abundance are highly associated with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value
derived from multispectral satellite data, and is useful in the assess the ground situation of Anopheline
malaria vector mosquito larval abundance 7 days in advance in the wet irrigation rice fields using remotely
sensed data. The result of logistic regression model provides the spatial agreement between the observed
and predicted values of larval index within buffer zones 2.5 KM around the trap location in the wet
cultivation rice fields much appropriate for Anopheline vector mosquito breeding. However, transmission
of Plasmodium vivax requires a minimum average temperature 15.0°C and transmission by Plasmodium
falciparum, requires a minimum average temperature of 19.0°C. The P.vivax vector requires 15 to 25 days
to complete the parasite development cycle within the temperature range between 15°C to 20°C, the relative
humidity for both species requires range between 55% to 80% and its life cycle may be completed within 6
to 10 days, if the temperature range remains within 25°C to 30°C. Multivariate analysis could be predicted
accurately the relative abundance of malaria vectors breeding habitats suitability and epidemics. The malaria
cases in the endemic districts and the relative abundance of the malaria vectors are directly controlled by the
climate variables with >85 % accuracy.

Author Biography

M.Palaniyandi

ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Field Station, Madurai-625002, Tamil Nadu, India

Published

2021-07-19

How to Cite

M.Palaniyandi. (2021). The environmental Risk Factors Significant to Anopheles Species Vector Mosquito Profusion, P.falciparum, P.vivax Parasite Development, and Malaria Transmission, Using Remote Sensing and Gis: Review Article. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 12(4), 162-171. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijphrd.v12i4.16539