Orbital Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM): A Review
Keywords:: Arteriovenous Malformations, AVMs, AFVs, infraorbital, periocular, orbital, diagnosing, lesions.
Orbital arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are identified by abnormal high-flow connections between the veins
and the arteries, which are often supplied by the branches of internal and external carotid arteries, also with a
nidus of cellular stroma distributed between the vessels. Orbital arteriovenous malformations are rare among all
congenital malformations. Pain, glaucoma, optic nerve ischemia and compression and retinal ischemia are some
of the causes of enlarging orbital AVMs. Because of the rare nature of these lesions, they are usually misdiagnosed
and treated improperly. For the diagnosis of such orbital AVMs, angiography becomes an essential tool. The
primary method of diagnosing orbital AV malformations are non-invasive cross-sectional imaging and catheter
angiography. Treatment for the same includes reducing the blood flow to the arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
via preoperative embolization. And surgical resection. Complete excision is challenging because of the increased
risk of involvement of the ophthalmic artery which can cause vision loss, preoperative embolization is difficult in
some patients. An effective way of treating arteriovenous malformation is ethanol sclerotherapy. Diagnosing and
managing Orbital AV malformations is important as these are rare and can cause permanent vision loss.
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