The Role of Smoking on Incidence and Prognosis of Covid-19 Patients Admitted to Tishreen University Hospital


  • Ghaya Salhab
  • Muhammad Alkhayer
  • Akil Hajouz



COVID-19, outcome, smoking


Background: In February 2020, the World Health Organization identified Covid-19 and identified SARAS-COV2
as the cause of the disease. So far, the number of infected people has exceeded 633 million, while the death toll has
exceeded 6.6 million. Since the start of the pandemic, there have been conflicting reports about smoking in terms
of incidence and prognosis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking on incidence and prognosis of COVID-19
Patients and Methods: An Analytic Observational Cohort study was conducted in patients with a proven diagnosis
of COVID-19. They are selected from Pulmonary Medicine department, Tishreen University Hospital in Lattakia-
Syria between June 2020 and December 2020. Study population were divided into two groups according to the
patient’s smoking status; group I included smoker (237 cases), and group II included non-smoker (277 cases).
Results: The population of 514 patients was predominantly male (66.1%), with a mean age of 61.76±14.9 years.
46.1% of the patients were smoker with presence of associated chronic diseases in 341 cases (66.3%). There were
no significant differences between two groups regarding gender and comorbidities (p>0.05). Patients were
significantly older in group I than in group II (71.22±13.2 versus 60.88±15.2, p:0.001). The rate of oxygen-based
treatment was higher in smokers compared non-smokers (84.8% versus 67.9%, p:0.03). Non-invasive mechanical
ventilation was necessary in 31 patients (13.1%) in group I versus 73 patients (26.4%) in group II, p:0.04. The
duration of hospitalization was longer in non-smoker group (7.2±4.1 versus 5.7±3.9, p:0.001). Recovery rate was
higher in non-smoker patients (81.2% versus 68.4%). In addition to, 75 patients (31.6%) in smoker group died
versus 52 patients (18.8%) in non-smoker group, p: 0.005.

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated presence of favorable inverse associations of smoking with duration
of hospitalization and the need to non-invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients.

Author Biographies

  • Ghaya Salhab

    Resident Doctor, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Tishreen University, Faculty of Medicine, Lattakia,

  • Muhammad Alkhayer

    Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Tishreen University, Faculty of Medicine, Lattakia, Syria

  • Akil Hajouz

    Professor, Department of Physiology, Tishreen University, Faculty of Medicine, Lattakia, Syria




How to Cite

The Role of Smoking on Incidence and Prognosis of Covid-19 Patients Admitted to Tishreen University Hospital. (2023). Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 14(3), 392-395.