Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Therapy (PMRT) on Sleep Quality among Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) Patients


  • Himanshi
  • Jithin Thomas Parel




CLD, PMRT, Sleep Quality, Effectiveness.


Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a progressive deterioration of liver functions for more than six months, which
includes synthesis of clotting factors, other proteins, detoxification of harmful products of metabolism and
excretion of bile. The chronic liver disease represents a continuous and progressive process of hepatic
fibrosis, liver tissue architectural distortion, and regeneration nodule formation. While fibrosis is usually
irreversible, but it can be reversible in the initial stage of development. The transition time point of reversible
fibrosis to irreversible fibrosis is still not completely understood.1 Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime
sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor
sleep negatively impacts patients’ quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although
sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), many patients without HE still
complain of poor quality sleep.2 Progressive muscle relaxation is based upon the simple practice of tensing, or
tightening, one muscle group at a time followed by a relaxation phase with release of the tension and improves
sleep quality among patients with CLD.

Author Biographies


Msc Nursing Second Year  College of Nursing, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS),New Delhi, India

Jithin Thomas Parel

Lecturer, College of Nursing, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS),New Delhi, India