Risk Factors of Prolapse Lumbar Intervertebral Disc (PLID): A Synthesis of Short Review

Risk Factors of Prolapse Lumbar Intervertebral Disc (PLID): A Synthesis of Short Review


  • Md Nazmul Hassan
  • Parvin Akter
  • Mohammad Anwar Hossain




PLID; Lumbar Radiculopathy; Associated risk factors.


Introduction: LDH, defined as the localized displacement of disc material beyond the margins of the intervertebral
disc space is considered the most common cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Compared with nonspecific low
back pain without radiating leg pain, LDH is associated with radiating pain/ radiculopathy,severe pain, disability,
healthcare use and intervention.
Objectives: To explorethe risk-factors associated with PLID/ LDH.
Literature: In this review, best evidence synthesis included systemic reviews, cohort studies and case-control
studies that investigated the risk factors for LDH/ PLID.
Critiques: LDH with radiculopathy results from complex relationships between individual, behavioural, and
work-related variables. Evidence revealed that- age, sex, education, BMI, cardiovascular risk factors, smoking,
occupational lumbar load by forward bending postures and manual materials handling, perceived risk of work
injury, decision freedom at work, regular or irregular three-shift work or regular night work in and time pressure
at work are associated with the development. It is also found that manual occupation, genetics, and previous back
pain may contribute to the development of LDH with radiculopathy in adults.
Conclusion: Although the literature is varying quality and heterogeneous, but the evidence revealed that LDH/
PLID is an important source of pain and disability in society. Future research should focus on prospective designs
examining modifiable risk factors and prevention strategies.


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Author Biographies

Md Nazmul Hassan

MSc in physiotherapy, Clinical Physiotherapist

Parvin Akter

MSc in physiotherapy, Clinical Physiotherapist

Mohammad Anwar Hossain

Senior Consultant Physiotherapist, Associate Professor and Head, Department of Physiotherapy, Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh